•School factorssuch as narrow
curricula, rigid instructional
strategies, tracking, and
pull-out programs hinder the academic
achievement of many at-risk students(Hixson and Tinzmann, 1990).
•Lack of challenging, meaningful work containing complex thinking skills underestimates at-risk students' capabilities, deprives them of a meaningful context for learning and use(Means & Knapp, 1991).